Single origin coffee is coffee that comes from only one area or region. This coffee can be traced back to the plantation where it was grown. The opposite of single origin coffee are blends. In a blend, several types of coffee are processed and made into a whole, making it unclear where exactly the coffee comes from.
Single origin coffee is generally more expensive than a blend. This is because a single origin is more difficult to obtain in certain periods due to seasonal conditions. Also, because they only come from one plantation/region, they cannot be produced in large quantities.
Since a single origin can be traced to a place, you will easily recognize the flavors that are distinct to that area. Examples of distinctive areas are Ethiopia, Panama, Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia, and so on. In a blend, these origins can be combined, making their specific flavors unidentifiable. This is not a bad thing, as a blend will also provide unique flavors.